Remote teacher professional development: six principles for effective programmes
31 July 2020
Amid all the recent disruption faced by education systems worldwide, 教师仍然是成功学习的核心，并将继续在减轻Covid-19危机对学习者的影响方面发挥关键作用. However, given the new demands of the pandemic, focused support and professional development will be crucial. As social distancing and safety measures will preclude traditional, in-person training for the foreseeable future, 将需要远程专业发展方案，以确保教师得到支持, both now and in the post-Covid world. 利用我们的研究和丰富的经验，开发教师专业发展计划, in this article, we provide a breakdown of key principles for remote teacher professional development.
Throughout the Covid-19 crisis, 教师在确保其学生的教育连续性方面发挥了至关重要的作用，并将继续发挥这一作用. Where schools remain closed, many teachers have been responsible for setting (and, where possible, assessing) remote work and providing guidance for parents. Where schools are reopening, teachers remain on the front line, 因应需要，评估学生在学校停课期间的进度或失学情况，并制定补课计划及其他补救措施. In some contexts, 教师还可能面临额外的压力，需要提供多种——甚至可能是同时的——教学模式, as some students remain learning at home, either by government mandate or parental choice, while others are attending school full- or part-time.
In the face of such demands, all teachers are likely to benefit from additional professional development and support, especially as it relates to the academic year ahead.
Where schools are reopening, 教师在评估学生长时间离开课堂后的进步方面可能经验有限, 或对所有学生实施补习措施或补习教育. 在儿童福祉受到封锁负面影响的情况下，他们还可能承担更多的牧领职责或维护关切, economic insecurity, or the illness or loss of a loved one during the pandemic. In some contexts, schools will only partially reopen, and are likely to use a blended learning model, 但相对而言，很少有教师接受过混合教学法方面的具体指导或培训. Indeed, in the longer term, with the possibility of further disruption or new rounds of closures, 大多数教师可能受益于远程教学的指导和专业发展. Moreover, 教师还应该能够继续进行预先规划的专业发展，以改善他们的实践并促进他们的职业生涯——特别是那些将在2020年上半年错过宝贵课堂时间的新合格或培训教师.
在可预见的未来，旨在限制大流行传播的社会保持距离措施可能会妨碍——或至少严重限制——亲自开展专业发展活动, such programmes will need to be adapted or developed for remote delivery. Depending on national or local contexts, remote teacher professional development may be technology-dependent (e.g. online learning) or technology-light (e.g. using radio or mobile phones), but ultimately, 使用任何给定的技术都应该是次要的，以确保培训具有相关和适当的重点，并满足教师的实际需要. That said, 有一些具体的远程教师专业发展方案的实际因素, which must be addressed to help ensure maximum benefit. 基于我们的专业知识和丰富的经验，教师专业发展项目, we have identified six key principles which should help.
Blended teacher professional development programmes should:
- Be informed by the latest evidence on adult learning.
Regardless of whether the programme is delivered in a face-to-face, remote or blended format, 它应该遵循通过严格的研究和对最新证据的系统审查确定的有效专业发展的相同原则. For example, evidence in our own research 建议这类项目应该支持教师将新知识嵌入到他们的实践中, provide opportunities for collaboration between teachers, and include subject-specific development.
- Blend synchronous (real-time) and asynchronous (self-paced) lessons.
教师应该有机会参与同步(实时访问)和异步(可随时访问)的专业发展活动. Evidence shows that this helps to cater to individual teachers’ contexts, allowing them to work around other responsibilities and commitments, while also maintaining a higher level of motivation and building their knowledge base.
- Use video to demonstrate and share good practice.
有证据表明，视频——如果有的话——在支持教师反思他们的做法方面非常有效, both with coaches and as part of teacher learning communities. For example, teachers may be given opportunities to observe ‘good practice’, either through live observations of others’ teaching, or through pre-recorded video examples.
- Ensure that teacher educators demonstrate a strong sense of ‘presence’.
Many teachers are likely to need extra support to stay engaged and motivated, 特别是当职业发展还很遥远，而且有许多其他需要他们的时间的时候. 有证据表明，强烈的“教师在场感”有助于提高学习者的参与度和积极性: consequently, 远程教师专业发展需要确保有强大的“教师教育者”存在. 因此，教师教育工作者应该得到专业发展，以确保他们能够在远程方案中发展这一特性. Strong ‘teacher educator presence’ can be established through skilful instructing, prompting, questioning and encouraging of teachers, making smart use of technology using SMS, mobile phone apps (such as WhatsApp) and targeted telephone or video calls, where available.
- Establish familiar routines that can be sustained.
Regardless of whether schools are open or closed, and whether the programme is face-to-face, remote or blended, 专业发展方案的设计应使教师的参与和参与能够持续下去, 使他们能够继续学习和发展他们的技能——即使在变化的环境中.
- Offer a central repository of high-quality resources.
应向教师和教师教育工作者提供一致的高质量资源. 这有助于确保专业发展方案的信息更加一致, 同时也要确保教师教育者能够花费大部分的时间来利用这些资源来刺激教师的成长, rather than creating disparate resources from scratch.
采用这些原则可能会确保远程职业发展计划是有效的, realistic and sustainable endeavour for education professionals, which can operate at scale without compromising on quality. These principles underpin our model for remote teacher PD at scale.
To find out more about our work on teacher development, please click here, or contact us to find out more about our delivery models.